Evaluation and Treatment of Infertility

Free cells of the connective tissue Fig. More info Vascular mechanisms basic to menstruation The mechanisms that regulate the menstruation phase 1rst-4th day result from the reduction in the estrogen and progesterone values, leading to a constriction of spiral arteries and consequent necrosis of the tissue. Only the functional layer of the endometrium is affected by these cyclic changes – the basal layer remains intact. The uterine vessel network scheme exhibits a selective sensibility with regard to the cyclic hormonal alterations. The radial and basal arterioles do not react to the hormonal variations, whereas the spiral arteries of the functional layer are hormone sensitive and constrict when the progesterone concentration decreases. Together with blood, which does not coagulate due to a local fibrinolytic factor, the necrotic tissue is eliminated menstruation.

6.1 Role and functional anatomy of the endometrium

Systematic consideration of major risk factors for each component should be considered during history-taking. Examples of some of the principal dysfunctions for each component of the reproductive system are given: Review of Section I Be aware of the most important factors in society that have contributed to infertility as major health care concern.

Endometrial hyperplasia is defined as endometrial proliferation with an increase in gland to stroma ratio (from to ). It is divided into Simple hyperplasia (with or without atypia) and Complex hyperplasia (with or without atypia) according to the WHO Classification.

Evaluation of the Couple as a Unit Infertility should be regarded as a two-patient disorder. Male and female partners must be thoroughly evaluated, counseled, and included in the therapeutic decision-making processes. Exclusion of the male partner may lead to feelings of isolation in the female and to disinterest and lack of cooperation of the male partner. A questionnaire is often helpful prior to the first visit and should include questions regarding prior conceptions, contraception, and coital frequency and techniques.

This document serves as a basis for review and in-depth questioning and does not replace the history. Both partners should be screened for the use of drugs or alcohol that may affect fertility. Studies in males with heavy marijuana use show reduced testosterone levels, decreased sperm counts, and impotency. Decreases in gonadotropin levels and ovulation are noted in females with frequent drug or alcohol ingestion. Cigarette smoking has also been implicated in subfertility. Early menopause, reduced spermatogenesis and decreased steroid production have been noted in individuals who use cigarettes.

Life-tablele analysis studies demonstrate a longer period of time to conception for smokers as compared to nonsmokers. Quality and Availability of Services The ideal environment for care of the infertile couple would involve almost total dedication of a clinical setting to attend to the needs of the infertile couple. Physicians and ancillary staff should be specifically oriented to respond appropriately to the sometimes unrealistic expectations and profound emotional stresses experienced by couples with infertility problems.

The nurse-clinician often provides the crucial link between the couple and the medical staff, thus making harmonious an evaluation that is often viewed by the couple as constituting personal invasion and physical trauma.

Dating the endometrial biopsy.

Accessed November 18th, Diagrams Phases Proliferative phase: Early proliferative endometrium Mid proliferative days 8 – Mid proliferative endometrium and Ki67 staining Late proliferative days 11 – Day 10 – 12 endometrium shows glands that are more tortuous and crowded; intraglandular nuclear pseudo- stratification and mitotic activity are more prominent see inset and the stroma is edematous and mitotically active Ovulation:

PowerPoint Slideshow about ‘Habitual implantation failure /RM,RIF/’ – keisha An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation endometrial receptivity. HOX gens. Segmental. body identity. HOX gens – endometrial development Endometrial dating

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Endometrial carcinoma is the most common cancer of the female reproductive tract. High GPER expression is predictive of poor survival in endometrial and ovarian cancer, but despite this, the estrogen-mediated signaling pathways and specific estrogen receptors involved in endometrial cancer remain unclear.

Furthermore, xenograft tumors of Hec50 cells yield enhanced growth with G-1 and estrogen, the latter being inhibited by GPER-selective pharmacologic antagonism with G Finally, our results provide the first demonstration that pharmacological inhibition of GPER activity in vivo prevents estrogen-mediated tumor growth. Introduction Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common cancer of the female reproductive tract with over 40, new diagnoses and over 7, deaths per year in the United States.

Although overlap exists with respect to histology, genetic aberations, and epidemiological profiles, the two tumor types appear to represent discrete carcinogenic processes with distinct molecular characteristics.

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When the level of glucose is high it finally affects the body parts.

Dictionary Normal tissue Appendix Appendix The appendix is a short intestinal protrusion attached to the cecum, the first part of the large intestine (colon), and ranges between cm in

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It is asserted that examination of the endometrium during the secretory phase yields more information about the time of ovulation, degree of progestational change, and normality of the endometrium than any other test used in sterility studies. Attention to qualitative changes in 8 morphological factors is most useful in dating the endometrial biopsy.

During the 1st week of luteal activity, attention should be focused on changes occurring in gland epithelium: During the 2nd week , stromal changes including edema , predecidual reaction, stromal mitosis, and leukocytic infiltration are the key criteria.

Share Tweet Different Stages of Endometriosis If you suspect that you may have endometriosis, it is important that you consult with your doctor and receive an accurate diagnosis. Endometriosis is commonly diagnosed via pelvic exam or a surgical procedure called laparoscopy. As part of the diagnosis, the doctor will typically determine which stage of endo [ ]

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Treatment For Type 2 Endometrial Cancer

The endometrium of the uterine body A consists of a single- layered prismatic surface epithelium, penetrating into the underlying connective tissue and thus forming tubular glands glandulae uterinae. The epithelium has 3 types of cells: The endometrium of the cervical canal B consists of a simple cylindrical surface epithelium with basal cells, cilia-carrying cells and secretory cells mucous- producing. This epithelium invaginates into the underlying connective tissue forming branched glands glandulae cervicales More info The uterus consists of two anatomically different sections: The mucosa of the uterine body, the endometrium, has a cell-rich connective tissue that surrounds the uterine glands The uterine epithelium consists of a single-layered prismatic epithelium that has three different types of cells: In each menstruation cycle the superficial functional layer of the endometrium is shed and reconstituted out of the underlying basal layer.

bleeding disorders are ruled out.() Endometrial biopsy or curettage is usually done to determine if endometrial changes are consistent with DUB and to exclude other causes of bleeding, especially organic lesions in the perimenopausal ://

Severity Stage 1 Endometriosis Minimal The first stage of endometriosis is characterized by superficial implants that are sometimes mistaken for cysts or ovarian cancer. They resemble small, flat patches or flecks on the pelvic surface. The presence of these implants causes irritation and inflammation in surrounding tissues, leading to the formation of adhesions.

Adhesions are bands of internal scar tissue that can bind tissues and organs that are normally mobile, causing pain and dysfunction. Stage 2 Endometriosis Mild Most women are diagnosed with minimal or mild endometriosis. The attributes of first stage endo are present in the second stage as well, but more aggressively. During this stage, lesions also appear in the recto-uterine pouch — the area between the uterus and rectum.

Chocolate cysts get their name because after time, the blood inside of the cyst turns dark red and brown. If a cyst ruptures, it can cause extreme abdominal pain and inflammation in the pelvic region. Inflammation and infection, in turn, cause more adhesions. As endometriomas increase in size and number, so do the adhesions that form in response.

Stage 4 Endometriosis Severe This is the final stage of endometriosis, associated with a large number of cysts and severe adhesions. Endometriomas can grow very large — even as big as a grapefruit — during this stage.

Statistical Techniques | Statistical Mechanics

Download Endometrial Biopsy Powerpoint Presentation By download this powerpoint presentation file, you agree to our terms of use. If you interesting in “Endometrial Biopsy” powerpoint themes, you can download to use this powerpoint template for your own presentation template. For viewing only, you can play with our flash based presentation viewer instead of downloading the ppt file.

 · Published endometrial dating criteria and menstrual history were utilized to assess the menstrual cycle phase. Endometrial dating was performed independently by C.D. and an independent pathologist. Endometrial dating was performed independently by C.D. and an independent ?id=/

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Treating Diabetes Depression

Several abnormalities can affect each of these and lead to infertility or pregnancy loss. In most women, spontaneous, cyclical ovulation at to day intervals continues during almost 40 years between menarche and menopause. Without contraception, there are approximately opportunities for pregnancy, which may occur with intercourse on any of days—the day of ovulation and its two preceding days.

This narrow window for fertilization is controlled by tightly regulated production of ovarian steroids.

Morphologic analysis (dating) of endometria obtained from women with proven fertility during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle (NE), untreated women with PCOS (PCOSE), women with PCOS with endometrial hyperplasia (HPCOSE), and women with endometrial (

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Because the rays of the sun come from one direction only at most half the body surface is exposed to solar radiation. Hypokalemia KIschium inferior or lower part of the pelvis. It keeps large clots from traveling into the blood vessels of the lungs. Muscle myopathyComputerautomated medical history questionnaires help doctors use their time more efficiently and evidence shows that patients answer a machine more honestly than they do a human doctor especially on sensitive topics such as alcohol or drug intake and sexual relationships.

Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. But its a bit like when youre flying. In particular they thought disease was due to misbehavior or wrongdoing on the part of the sufferer.

The Menstrual Cycle 3D Animation