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Introduction Carbon is the lightest member of the IVA family of the periodic table, atomic number 6, electronic configuration 1s22s22p2. Its first ionization potential is Its naturally-occurring stable isotopes are of mass 12 A living sample of wood, say, has the equilibrium amount of C When it dies, the radiocarbon decays steadily, and the ratio of C14 to C12 declines to half in years, and so on. By measuring this ratio, the time when the wood was living can be estimated. This method of dating was worked out by Willard Libby in , and is called “carbon dating. Previously, the naturally occurring isotopic mix of oxygen was taken as

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L’admission aux stages sera basée sur l’engagement, la participation et la contribution des participants durant cette discussion de type speed-dating Après la discussion, un réseautage informel aura lieu.

Updated December by SIC. Original by Bill Johnson. You do [this, that, and the other thing]. Like all paradigms, this one is subject to some interpretation. Normal decay of radioactive stuff proceeds via one of four mechanisms: Alpha decay, the emission of an alpha particle — a helium-4 nucleus — which reduces the number of protons and neutrons present in the parent nucleus by two each; Beta decay, encompassing several related phenomena in which a neutron in the nucleus is replaced by a proton, or a proton is replaced by a neutron, along with some other things involving electrons, positrons, neutrinos, and antineutrinos.

These other things are, as we shall see, at the bottom of several questions involving perturbation of decay rates; Gamma decay, the emission of one or more gamma rays — very energetic photons — that take a nucleus from an excited state to some other typically ground state; some of these photons may be replaced by “conversion electrons”, of which more shortly; Spontaneous fission, in which a sufficiently heavy nucleus simply breaks in half.

Most of the discussion about alpha particles will also apply to spontaneous fission. Gamma decay often occurs from the daughter nucleus of one of the other decay modes. We neglect very exotic processes like C emission or double beta decay in this analysis. Beta decay happens most often to a nucleus with a neutron excess, which decays by converting a neutron into a proton: The type of beta decay that involves destruction of a proton is not familiar to many people, so deserves a little elaboration.

Either of two processes may occur when this kind of decay happens:

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This watercolor was made as part of an ambitious attempt to publish a series of books containing engraved reproductions of Old Master paintings then in England. It is with Turner that the first truly romantic interpretation of The Mill is to be found. See also David H. In the painting was described by C. Nieuwenhuys in the following manner:

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Bombarding Cf by 10B or 11B and of Am with 18O Like the lanthanides , the actinides form a family of elements with similar properties. Within the actinides, there are two overlapping groups: Compared to the lanthanides, which except for promethium are found in nature in appreciable quantities, most actinides are rare. The majority of them do not even occur in nature, and of those that do, only thorium and uranium do so in more than trace quantities.

The most abundant or easily synthesized actinides are uranium and thorium, followed by plutonium, americium, actinium, protactinium, neptunium, and curium. The prevailing view that dominated early research into transuranics was that they were regular elements in the 7th period, with thorium, protactinium and uranium corresponding to 6th-period hafnium , tantalum and tungsten , respectively. Synthesis of transuranics gradually undermined this point of view.

By an observation that curium failed to exhibit oxidation states above 4 whereas its supposed 6th period homolog, platinum , can reach oxidation state of 6 prompted Glenn Seaborg to formulate a so-called “actinide hypothesis”. Studies of known actinides and discoveries of further transuranic elements provided more data in support of this point of view, but the phrase “actinide hypothesis” the implication being that a “hypothesis” is something that has not been decisively proven remained in active use by scientists through the late s.

The first method is most important for applications, as only neutron irradiation using nuclear reactors allows the production of sizeable amounts of synthetic actinides; however, it is limited to relatively light elements. The advantage of the second method is that elements heavier than plutonium, as well as neutron-deficient isotopes, can be obtained, which are not formed during neutron irradiation. This non-observation was attributed to spontaneous fission owing to the large speed of the products and to other decay channels, such as neutron emission and nuclear fission.

Uranium and thorium were the first actinides discovered.

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It is interesting to note that Moissan constructed his famous electric furnace in an attempt to produce artificial diamonds and thought that he had succeeded. When Moissan died in , George Urbain Sorbonne , who discovered lutetium in ytterbium samples in , 44 replaced him. This Committee reported annually to , except for due to the World War. The War ended correspondence with Ostwald in , 45 which was never resumed46 because of the wartime hostilities.

The International Committee on Atomic Weights has a long and colorful history dating back for over a century. Initially, the task was to provide the chemical community and trade and commerce with the most accurate atomic weight values for the chemical elements.

Email It’s Friday night, and your date for the evening just appeared on your computer screen. He’s shifting awkwardly in his chair as he adjusts his webcam, and a comment about American Idol makes it immediately clear you haven’t found your soul mate. You promptly click “End date” and — after a few moments — your next date appears, and you’re ready to begin again. Welcome to Dating 2. A bevy of new services is banking on the booming popularity of web video, text messaging and social networking to amp up online matchmaking for the Web 2.

They’re the latest twists on internet dating, which drew in Video-centered services like SpeedDate, Say-hey-hey and WooMe reel in online speed daters by offering quick registration, free memberships and the tantalizing promise of a date within minutes. WooMe, backed by original Skype backer Mangrove Capital Partners, allows members to create short group-video-chat sessions. SpeedDate, based in San Mateo, California, files a seemingly endless line of daters through your virtual door for three-minute “video dates” supplemented with a text client.

With Say-hey-hey, users upload a YouTube-style clip of themselves, and viewers interested in a date ping the posters with intro videos of their own. Larry Rosen, professor of psychology at California State University at Dominguez Hills and author of the forthcoming book Me, MySpace and I, says the evolution of online dating is only natural: Even pioneer dating site Match. WooMe has facilitated upward of , introductions, SpeedDate has hosted more than , speed dates and Crazy Blind Date has registered 10, users, according to the services’ representatives.

Researchers say virtual dating could boost matchmaking potential, since video daters know instantaneously if they have that elusive chemistry.

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In classroom discussions, I’m sure we have all been faced with both a sea of blank stares with no response as well as out-of-order chaos. Below are some of the activities you can use to strike a good balance, keep control, engage students, and break away from the traditional whole-class discussion. These activities allow for more reflection, interaction, and thoughtful expression.

The silent discussion method allows everyone even your most reluctant students to share their ideas.

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NHTSA said it was concerned about slow completion rates on recalls the automaker announced, slow or inadequate notifications to consumers, faulty approaches to fixing the safety issues and improper actions by dealers. The penalty, the largest ever issued by the regulatory agency, reflects a tougher approach to automotive regulation in the wake of high-profile recalls last year by General Motors and airbag supplier Takata.

It comes less than a month after NHTSA held a hearing to present evidence of Fiat Chrysler low recall completion rates for more than two dozen recall campaigns covering 11 million vehicles. Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx in a statement. President Barack Obama with a mandate from Congress to crack down on the auto industry. In addition to the penalties, the order requires FCA to: The consent order does allow Fiat Chrsyler to repair and then resell the vehicles it buys back from the current owners.

The automaker declined to provide an estimate on Sunday of the potential cost of its obligations beyond the civil penalties. An independent monitor, while unusual, is not unprecedented. Fiat Chrysler, in a statement on Sunday, acknowledged that some of its recall processes and procedures have fallen short.

The order comes just two days after Fiat Chrysler was forced to issue a recall notice for 1. That recall was prompted from a story published last Tuesday by Wired magazine that showed how two security experts were able to remotely hack into and take control of a Jeep Cherokee. Fiat Chrysler also said Saturday it would recall , Ram trucks in North America to prevent the inadvertent deployment of side-curtain air-bags. The automaker said some of the pickups for Ram , and pickups may be set to deploy at low thresholds.

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Its physical and chemical properties most closely resemble its lighter congener barium. Both of these values are slightly lower than those of barium, confirming periodic trends down the group 2 elements. Isotopes of radium Decay chain of U, the primordial progenitor of Ra Radium has 33 known isotopes, with mass numbers from to These isotopes nevertheless still have half-lives too short to be primordial radionuclides and only exist in nature from these decay chains. Its immediate decay product is the dense radioactive noble gas radon , which is responsible for much of the danger of environmental radium.

More specifically, natural radium which is mostly Ra emits mostly alpha particles, but other steps in its decay chain the uranium or radium series emit alpha or beta particles, and almost all particle emissions are accompanied by gamma rays.

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April Koch April teaches high school science and holds a master’s degree in education. Learn how scientists determine the ages of rocks and fossils. We’ll explore both relative and numerical dating on our quest to understand the process of geological dating. Along the way, we’ll learn how stratigraphic succession and radioactive decay contribute to the work of paleontologists. Dating Dinosaur Fossils Consider the following scenario: Paul the Paleontologist is a very famous scientist who has studied dinosaur bones all over the world.

Recently, he appeared on the evening news to talk about a new dinosaur he just discovered. The dinosaur is called superus awesomus. Paul says he can tell from the fossils that superus awesomus lived on Earth about million years ago. Paul is super awesome, so I’m going to take him at his word. But really, how do scientists figure out how old their dinosaur bones are? And, what about other findings like fossil fish, plants and insects?

Scientists are always spouting information about the ages of rocks and fossils. How do they know these ages?

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A person living in an urban area typically has a smaller carbon footprint than someone living in a rural or suburban area. Last month countries signed the Paris climate agreement. Cities are not often viewed as environmentally friendly places. Buildings and concrete are much of the landscape, not the typical backdrop in photos from nature lovers. And a quick look at the data presents a stark picture. But beneath this tough exterior lies a key building block in the fight against climate change.

Per capita emissions in cities are typically lower than those in their home country. The region includes the city, inner-ring older suburbs and newer communities far from the city center. Each county in the Chicago region had lower per capita emissions than the average of the United States overall. Not all locations, however, performed equally. Per capita emission in Chicago were 20 to 30 percent lower than in the surrounding counties.


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There are 24 known isotopes of potassium, three of which occur naturally: Naturally occurring 40 K has a half-life of 1. It decays to stable 40 Ca by beta decay The conventional K-Ar dating method depends on the assumption that the rocks contained no argon at the time of formation and that all the subsequent radiogenic argon 40 Ar was quantitatively retained. Minerals are dated by measurement of the concentration of potassium and the amount of radiogenic 40 Ar that has accumulated.

The minerals best suited for dating include biotite , muscovite , metamorphic hornblende , and volcanic feldspar ; whole rock samples from volcanic flows and shallow instrusives can also be dated if they are unaltered. In healthy animals and people, 40 K represents the largest source of radioactivity, greater even than 14 C.

Potassium is principally created in Type II supernovae via an explosive oxygen-burning process. It makes up about 2. Potash Potash is primarily a mixture of potassium salts because plants have little or no sodium content, and the rest of a plant’s major mineral content consists of calcium salts of relatively low solubility in water. While potash has been used since ancient times, it was not understood for most of its history to be a fundamentally different substance from sodium mineral salts.